Novice

Poslanica predsednika Kodokana gospoda Uemura Harukija

Predsednik Kodokana gospod Uemura Haruki

Dragi judoisti in podporniki.

Skupaj smo vstopili v novo leto 2020 in s tem postali del 160-letnega svetovnega judo gibanja, ki je več kot šport. V judu najdemo trdne strukture za krepitev telesa in duha, za razumevanje medsebojnih odnosov, za vzgojo in oblikovanje življenjskih nazorov in še mnogo več. Judo je kot »žakelj« modrosti brez dna. Veličino juda je v svoji poslanici za leto 2020 čudovito zaokrožil predsednik Kodokana gospod Uemura Haruki. Z vami zato v nadaljevanju delimo njegovo razmišljanje.

Iskrena hvala za vaše zaupanje in podporo. Želimo vam uspešno leto in že stiskamo pesti za naše judoiste, ki bodo letos nastopili na olimpijskih igrah v zibelki juda v Tokiu .

PS. Poslanico sem prevedla iz angleščine s pomočjo programa Googl Translate. Potrudila sem se po svojih močeh (nisem profesionalka). Želim vam prijetno branje.

Viktorija Pečnikar Oblak

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Srečno novo leto!

Happy New Year!

V veliko veselje mi je, da vam lahko voščim in zaželim vse dobro v letu 2020.

It is my great pleasure to send my greetings and best wishes for 2020.

Letos mineva 160 let od rojstva Jigora Kana. Zelo sem vesel, da bo Tokio v tem spominskem letu gostil olimpijske igre in paraolimpijske igre, katerim je Kano posvetil življenje.

This year marks the 160th anniversary of Jigoro Kano’s birth. I am very happy that in this commemorative year Tokyo will host the Olympics and Paralympics, to which he dedicated his life.

Kano Shihan je leta 1909 na prošnjo barona de Coubertina postal prvi član Mednarodnega olimpijskega komiteja (International Olympic Committee – IOC) iz daljnega vzhoda.  Baronov sodobni olimpijski duh je imel veliko skupnega s Kanovimi idejami.  Verjetno sta se dobro ujemala prek principov, ki ju je zagovarjal Kano “seiryoku zenyo” – najučinkovitejša raba energije in “jita kyoei” – medsebojna blaginja in korist, Baron pa je podobno želel  mlade krepiti prek športa in spodbujati svetovni mir z mednarodno izmenjavo. Da bi uresničil sodelovanje Japonske na olimpijskih igrah, je Kano ustanovil japonsko ljubiteljsko športno zvezo “Japan Amateur Sports Association” in leta 1911 postal njen prvi predsednik. Naslednje olimpijsko leto 1912 sta v Stockholm prispela dva atleta, ki sta tekmovala v teku[1] in sicer Shiso Kanakurija in Yahiko Mishima in tako je Japonska prvič sodelovala na olimpijskih igrah.

Kano Shihan became the first member of International Olympic Committee (IOC) from an oriental country in 1909 at the request of Baron de Coubertin. The modern Olympic spirit that he pursued had many things in common with Kano’s ideas. Especially seiryoku zenyo (the most efficient use of energy) and jita kyoei (mutual welfare and benefit), advocated by Kano, may have resonated with Baron de Coubertin, who aimed to nurture young people through sports and promote world peace through international exchange. To realize Japan’s participation in the Olympics, Kano established the Japan Amateur Sports Association and became its first chairman in 1911. In the following year, he led the Japanese team of two athletes – KANAKURI Shiso and MISHIMA Yahiko – to Stockholm and took part in the first Olympics for Japan.

Zatem se je Kano zelo potrudil za uspešno kandidaturo Tokia za olimpijske igre, ki bi bile prve v Aziji. Njegovi napori so obrodili sadove na skupščini Mednarodnega olimpijskega komiteja – MOK leta 1936, kjer je Japonska s 36 glasovi premagala Helsinke s 27 glasovi in se odločila za Tokio kot prizorišče poletnih olimpijskih iger 1940. Vendar na žalost Japonska po smrti Jigora Kana zaradi poslabšanih mednarodnih razmer ni imela druge možnosti, kot da se odpove gostovanju iger. Na predlaganih, a neuresničenih olimpijskih igrah v Tokiu so bile načrtovane neuradne demonstracije japonskih državnih športov kot so bili judo, kendo in baseball. Šele na olimpijskih igrah v Tokiu leta 1964 je judo postal uradna olimpijska disciplina. A če bi se zgodile olimpijske igre leta 1940, bi judo svoj olimpijski prvenec slavil že četrt stoletja prej.

Afterwards, he made tremendous efforts for Tokyo’s successful bid to hold the Olympics, which would be the first in Asia. His effort bore fruit at the IOC general meeting in 1936 when Japan beat Helsinki by the vote of 36 to 27 to decide on Tokyo as the venue for the 1940 Summer Olympics. Unfortunately, however, after his death, Japan had no choice but forego hosting the Games due to the worsening international situation. In the proposed but unrealized Tokyo Olympics, unofficial demonstrations of the national sports of Japan – Judo and Kendo – as well as baseball had been planned. It was not until the Tokyo 1964 Games that Judo was introduced as an official event. But if the 1940 Olympics had taken place, Judo would have made its Olympic debut as far back as a quarter of a century earlier.

Z vsem srcem si želim in upam na uspeh olimpijskih in paraolimpijski iger 2020, ki bodo prvič po 56 letih spet potekale v Tokiu.

I pray with all my heart for the success of the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics, the Games to be held in Tokyo for the first time in 56 years.

Tako kot prejšnja leta smo tudi v letu 2019 doma in v tujini organizirali različne judo turnirje in seminarje za vse starostne skupine od otrok do seniorjev ter za vse stopnje spretnosti od začetnikov do nosilcev visokih dan pasov. Številni udeleženci so svoje znanje izpopolnjevali in spodbudili izmenjavo prek juda.

As was the case in previous years, various tournaments and seminars were held in 2019 at home and abroad for all age groups from children to seniors and for all skill levels from beginners to high-dan holders. Many participants enhanced their skills with each other and boosted exchange through Judo.

Posebej velja omeniti svetovno prvenstvo v judu, ki je avgusta  2019 potekalo v Nippon Budokanu kot predtekmovanje olimpijskih iger 2020. Na tekmovanju je sodelovalo 828 športnikov iz 143 držav in regij ter je pritegnilo medijsko pozornost in veliko občinstva.  Judoisti, predstavniki svojih držav, so se prijemali in izvajali agresivne, pogumne borbe. Judoisti so prikazali tehnike, ki so jih izpopolnjevali na svojih vsakodnevnih treningih in lahko smo videli dobro telesno ter duševno pripravljenost tekmovalcev. Borbe, ki  so dosegale vrhunce v prikazu izjemnih obrambnih in napadalnih tehnik, so navdušile publiko.

Of note is the World Judo Championships held in Nippon Budokan in August as a pre-event of the 2020 Games. Participated in by 828 athletes from 143 countries and regions, the competition attracted media attention and a large audience. In the competition, athletes representing their countries gripped each other and carried out aggressive, courageous matches. They demonstrated techniques they had polished through their daily practices, their well-built bodies and spiritual strength. Their matches rose to the point that their offensive and defensive techniques thrilled the audience.

Skupaj z navdušenjem judoistov se je močno izboljšala tudi raven sodniških sposobnosti. Vendar pa me je skrbelo dejstvo, da so sodniki preveč odvisni od videoposnetkov, ko so presojali “nage-wazo” – tehnike metov, kar je povzročilo pogoste zamude na tekmovanju. Ko je bila izvedena določena tehnika meta, so sodniki veliko pozornosti namenili preverjanju ali se je hrbet tekmovalca dotaknil borilne površine – tatamija, da so dajali manjši pomen načeloma “ikioi” – zagon z močjo in hitrostjo in “hazumi” – spretnost z zagonom, ostrino ali ritmom. Tehnika meta bi morala biti izvedena tako, da se nasprotnik lahko s hrbtom  dotakne tatamija. Toda vrednost tehnike metov je v načelih “ikioi” in “hazumi”. Skrbi me tudi njihovo nejasno presojanje borbe stoje in borbe na tleh v nestoječem položaju. Pri izvajanju tehnik končnih prijemov “osaekomi-waza” bi moral biti izvajalec  – “tori” obrnjen z obrazom proti nasprotniku in ga držati na tatamiju tako, da je nasprotnik na hrbtu in se ne more premakniti. Toda sodniki so razglasili “osaekomi” – odštevanje časa za uveljavitev končnega prijema, čeprav se nasprotnikov hrbet ni dotaknil tal ali ko sta oba borca ležala drug ob drugem ali celo v primeru, ko je bilo telo “torija” – tistega, ki izvaja tehniko pod nasprotnikovim. Sodniki so morda razglasili osakekomi v dobri veri, ker se nasprotnik ni mogel premikati,  vendar so s tem zgrešili pomen izvajanja tehnik končnih prijemov.

Along with the athletes’ enthusiasm, the level of referee skills improved considerably. However, I was concerned about the fact that referees depended too much on videos to judge nage-waza (throwing techniques), which caused frequent delays in the matches. When nage-waza was performed, referees paid so much attention to whether the back touched the mat that they gave less importance to the ikioi (momentum with both force and speed) and hazumi (skillfulness with impetus, sharpness or rhythm). Nage-waza, indeed, should be executed so that the opponent may touch his back on the tatami mat. But the value of nage-waza lies in the ikioi and hazumi. I am also concerned about their unclear judging of the standing position and ground position. Osaekomi-waza should be performed facing the opponent, and holding him down with his back on the mat so as to render him unable to move. But referees declared osaekomi even though the opponent’s back did not touch the mat or when both players laid down side-by-side, or even in the case that the aggressor’s body was underneath the opponent’s. Referees may have declared osakekomi because the opponent was unable to move, but it was off the point of osaekomi-waza.

Doslej je bilo že veliko razprav o sodniških pravilih in mislim, da jih bomo znova in znova preverjali tudi v naslednjem olimpijskem ciklu. Če nazorno pokažemo načela in principe juda, ki so izvirna točka Kodokan juda, moramo natančno ugotoviti, kaj je treba s časom spremeniti v skladu s časom in kaj ohraniti. Izvorne principe in teorijo juda moramo skoz mnoge razprave vedno znova postavljati v ospredje.

There have been many discussions on the refereeing rules so far and I think they will be reviewed again and again in the Olympiad cycle. Showing clearly the principles and technical systems, which are the original point of Kodokan Judo, we have to strictly discern between what needs to be changed in accordance with the times and what is not to be changed. It is necessary through repeated discussions to set forth the principles and theory rooted in Judo.

Radi bi definirali “nage-wazo” – tehnike metov, “osaekomi-wazo” – tehnike končnih prijemov, stoječi položaj in tako imenovano borbo v parterju  ali nestoječem položaju, da jih bomo znali pravilno in jasno razlagati.

We would like to define nage-waza, osaekomi-waza, standing position, and ground position so that we will be able to explain them properly in clear language.

Septembra 2019 je v Koreji v mestu Chungiu potekalo 11. svetovno prvenstvo v judo katah[2], na katerem je sodelovalo 80 parov iz 29 držav in regij s petih celin. Japonski športniki so sodelovali v kategorijah Katame-no-kata, Kime-no-kata in Kodokan Goshinjutsu in v vseh osvojili prvo mesto. Brazilija je naslov prvaka osvojila v Nage-no-kati, Nemčija pa v Ju-no-kati. Enajst držav je osvojilo medalje. Ta številka kaže, da so kate razširjene v številnih državah. Za spodbujanje nadaljnjega razvoja tega področja, bomo iskali enostavne in čim bolj razumljive načine učenja kat ter poskrbeli za inštruktorje in izpopolnjevalne seminarje.

The World Judo Kata Championships took place in Chungiu, Korea in September. It was the 11th meet and participated in by 80 pairs from 29 countries and regions from five continents. Japanese athletes participated in the categories of Katame-no-kata, Kime-no-kata, and Kodokan Goshinjutsu, and were awarded the first prize in all of them. Brazil captured the title in Nage-no-kata and Germany in Ju-no-kata. Eleven countries won medals. This number shows that kata has been spread to many countries. To promote further development, we will discuss how to teach kata in ways that are more simple and easy to understand, while dispatching instructors and enhancing seminars for trainees who are eager to learn the essence.

Lani je Kodokan v sodelovanju z Mednarodno judo zvezo (IJF) in s Francosko judo zvezo ustvaril “Kodomo-no-kato”  t.i. kato za otroke[3], ki naj bi sistematizirala, kaj naj se otroci najprej naučijo, ko  pričnejo z vadbo juda. S tem smo v Kodokanu odgovorili na prošnje iz tujine, kjer je malo inštruktorjev za učenje kat. Upamo, da bo kata za otroke uspešen uvod v Nage-no-kato [4]

Last year, Kodokan created Kodomo-no-kata (kata for children) in cooperation with the International Judo Federation (IJF) and French Judo Federation, intended to systematize what children should learn first when they take up Judo. We made it in response to requests not from Japan but from overseas where there are few instructors. We hope it will be used as the introduction to Nage-no-kata to effectively teach kata to children.

Kano Shihan je ustanovil judo, potem ko je razvil koncept “učinkovitega pouka”, ki ga je v ju-jutsu bolj malo videl. Zavedati se moramo mnogih različnosti v raziskovanju ustvarjalnih učnih metod.

Kano Shihan invented Judo after developing the concept of “effective instruction,” which had been little noticed by Ju-jutsu. We have to be mindful of various things in creative ways in order to research teaching methods.

Nadaljevati moramo s poglobljenim študijem poučevanja juda, za kar smo odgovorni vsi inštruktorji (učitelji juda).  Dokler judo obravnavamo kot izobraževanje, si moramo zastavljati vprašanja o metodah poučevanja. Kano Shihan je povedal, da načini treninga vključujejo” kate” – v naprej določen prikaz tehnik,” randori” – borba, “kogi” – predavanje in “mondo” –  dialog. To pomeni spoznati teorijo z prakticiranjem kat, jo uporabljati v randoriju, pridobivati ​​znanje iz kogija in negovati miselne spretnosti skozi mondo. Prav slednji – dialog je bil pred kratkim ponovno ovrednoten v judu. Še eno pomembno izobraževalno orodje pa je spodbujanje študentov k iskanju odgovora brez da bi jim učitelj le tega preprosto povedal.

We have to pursue further in-depth study, which is the responsibility of all who are involved in instruction. As long as we consider Judo as education, we have to ask ourselves questions about teaching methods. Kano Shihan said that training styles include kata, randori, kogi (lecture), and mondo (dialogue). This means learning the theory by kata, applying it in randori, acquiring knowledge from kogi, and nurturing thinking skills through mondo. Mondo has been reassessed recently. Encouraging students to find an answer is another important educational tool beyond just telling an answer.

Z namenom, da bomo judo predstavili na čim bolj jasen in razumljiv način, se bomo bolj posvetili obnovi znanja in vedenja naših predhodnikov, namesto da bi neprestano iskali nekaj novega. Pred kratkim so nas v Kodokanu obiskali inštruktorji akademije IJF s katerimi smo en teden snemali video, da bi svetu podali jasne odgovore o tem, kakšen naj bo judo.

We will renew awareness of the achievements that our predecessors made instead of searching for something new, so that we may communicate Judo in an understandable manner. Instructors of IJF Academy visited us recently to film a video for one week. What the world expects from Kodokan is to show what Judo should be, provide clear answers, and communicate to the world.

Na začetku novega leta bi se radi vrnili na začetek Kodokan juda, ki ga je ustanovil Kano Shihan in si vztrajno prizadevali za promocijo ne le »tekmovalnega juda«, ampak tudi »judo izobraževanja« ali »juda, ki varuje ljudi«. Prav tako želimo, da principa »seiryoku zenyo« in »jita kyoei« čim bolj zaživita v praksi ter da razširimo in prenesemo bistvo duha  Kodokan juda tako doma na japonskem kot globalno. Na ta način želimo nadaljevati tradicijo Kodokan juda, ki so ga oblikovali naši predniki in dodati novo stran v knjigi zgodovine juda.

At the outset of the New Year, we would like to get back to the original point of Kodokan Judo founded by Kano Shihan and make persistent efforts to promote not only “Judo for competition” but also “Judo as education” or “Judo to nurture people.” We also would like to put seiryoku zenyo and jita kyoei into practice and convey the spirit and essence of Kodokan Judo both domestically and globally. In this way we wish to carry on the tradition of Kodokan Judo formed by our predecessors and add a new page to our history.

Vesel bom vašega nadaljnjega usmerjanja, podpore in sodelovanja.

I ask you for your continued guidance, support, and cooperation.

Za konec vam vsem želim vse dobro v letu 2020.

In conclusion, I wish you all the best throughout the year of 2020.

Opombe:

[1] Predlagamo vam, da si preberete zanimivo zgodbo maratonca Shiso Kanakurija, ki je svoj tek na nek način dokončal šele po 54 letih, 8 mesecih, 6 dnevih, 5 urah, 32 minutah in 20.3 sekundah. Takšni podvigi Jigora Kana in njegovih sodelavcev so nam lahko vzor in navdih.

[2] Slovenija žal na svetovnem prvenstvu v katah 2019 ni imela svojega predstavnika.

[3] Videoposnetek kate za otroke si lahko ogledate TUKAJ

[4] Nage-no-kata je osnovna, prva kata od osmih, ki so sprejete v Kodokanu in prikazuje tehnike metov v paru. Izvaja se po v naprej natančno določenih pravilih.